The problem of washing is now being solved quite simply. The user loads the laundry into the drum, presses a few buttons on the control panel of the automatic washing machine and is patient. This is where human participation ends. Then the automation will do everything. In the material, we will "disassemble" an automatic washing machine into components and see which one is responsible for what.
Modern automatic washing machines are controlled by a microprocessor, which gives the command to start the next stage, based on the readings of sensors. If the machine must heat the water to 40 ° C during the execution of the program, then it will first do this, and then proceed to the next stage.
An automatic washing machine performs a complete wash cycle. The standard program can be divided into several stages:
3. Spin. Moisture is removed from the fibers of the fabric up to about 20-25% depending on how many revolutions per minute have been set.
For different manufacturers and in different wash programs, the stages can be supplemented with auxiliary procedures, for example, a pre-wash, or vice versa - they can be excluded, for example, spinning in the washing mode for delicate fabrics, instead of which the water is simply drained.
Despite the wide variety of models from different manufacturers, the device of automatic washing machines is almost the same and does not differ much from each other.
The "brain" center of any washing machine is an electronic board. It is she who controls all the processes taking place in the machine during washing. It is to her that all the parameters and readings of the sensors "flock", and it is from her that the commands to the machine's executive mechanisms come. Depending on the version, the electronics module can be divided into two separate boards: power and control, or assembled in a single housing.
It is in the control board that the washing programs are "sewn", the control algorithms that allow you to make adjustments to the preset programs and safety protocols that are responsible for the adequate use of the washing machine.
The correct name for this unit is the solenoid filling valve (KEN). He is responsible for supplying water to the washing machine. It is a conventional electromagnet controlled by signals from the electronic board. The valve is normally closed and prevents water from entering the tank of the machine. When a signal is received, voltage is applied to the coil of the electromagnet, the core is drawn in and opens a path for water to enter, which is directed into the loading tray for detergents and washes them into the tank.
As a rule, KEN contains two or three electromagnets, the opening of which allows water to flow through the various compartments of the detergent tray and wash them out into the washing unit.
Structurally, the tank and drum of an automatic washing machine are a single whole. The drum, made of stainless steel, is built into the sturdy "shell" of the tank.
In the tank, the detergent solution is prepared and heated to the temperature required for washing. An electric heating element installed in the lower part of the tank is responsible for heating the water.
The tanks of modern washing units are usually made of durable plastic. It is quite strong, retains heat well, is resistant to corrosion and is light in weight. The drum of the washing machine is made of stainless steel. For better contact of linen with water during washing and moisture removal during wringing, the walls of the drum are made perforated, water circulates freely through the holes in the unit.
The effectiveness of washing lies in the mechanical effect on the laundry. That is why, during the washing phase, the tank of the machine is filled to a minimum so that the water does not absorb the impact of the laundry on the drum surface.
During the washing process, the drum rotates in one direction or the other at a speed of about 50 rpm. When spinning, the drum is able to spin up to 1600 rpm - different models have different thresholds.
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